articles, reports, chapters and books

Names of ForLives’ researchers appear in bold text below.


Timko, J., P. Le Billon, H. Zerriffi, J. Honey-Rosés, I. de la Roche, C. Gaston, T.C.H. Sunderland, & R.A. Kozak (in press). A policy nexus approach to forests and the SDGs: tradeoffs and synergies. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 34: 7-12. <>

Bull, G.Q. (2018). Forests and Energy. Background study prepared for the thirteenth session of the United Nations Forum on Forests. <>

Clark, R., J. Reed & T. Sunderland. 2018. Bridging Finance Gaps for Climate and Development: Pitfalls, Progress and Potential. Land Use Policy 71: 335-346.

Honey-Rosés, J., M. Maurer, M.I. Ramirez, E. Corbera. 2018. Quantifying active and passive restoration in central Mexico from 1986-2012: Assessing the evidence of a forest transition. Restoration Ecology <doi:10.1111/rec.12703>


Börner, J., K Baylis, E. Corbera, D. Ezzine-de-Blas, J. Honey-Rosés, U. M. Persson, S. Wunder (in press). The Effectiveness of Payments for Environmental Services. World Development.

Bulkan, J. (2017). Social, cultural and spiritual needs and values. Earthscan: Sustainable Forest Management: from concept to practice.

Dorward, C., SM Smukler, K Mullinix (2017). A novel methodology to assess land-based food self-reliance in the Southwest British Columbia bioregion. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 32 (2), 112-130

Hajjar, R. and R.A. Kozak (2017).  The Evolution of Forest Producer Associations and their Current Role in REDD+:  Case Studies from Quintana Roo, Mexico.  Land Use Policy 60(2017):373-383.

Hawthorne, I ., MS Johnson, RS Jassal, TA Black, NJ Grant, SM Smukler (2017) Application of biochar and nitrogen influences fluxes of CO 2, CH 4 and N 2 O in a forest soil. Journal of Environmental Management 192, 203-214

Levine, J., A. Isaeva, I. Eddy, M. Foggin, S. Gergel, S. Hagerman, H. Zerriffi (2017). A cognitive approach to the post-Soviet Central Asian pasture puzzle: new data from Kyrgyzstan Regional Environmental Change 17(3), 941-947

Reed, J., J. von Vianen, J. Barlow & T. Sunderland. 2017. Have integrated landscape approaches reconciled societal and environmental issues in the tropics? Land Use Policy, 63: 481–492.

Shahi, S., R. Pulkki, M. Leitch and C. Gaston.  2017.  Optimal production-inventory model for forest products industry supply chain under demand and supply uncertainty: Case study of a pulp mill in Ontario.  Cogent Business & Management, 4:1370765. 

Shahi, S., R. Pulkki, and M. Leitch C. Gaston.  2017.  Integrating operational planning decisions throughout the forest products industry supply chain under supply and demand uncertainty.  International Journal of Forest Engineering.  DOI:10.1080/14942119.2017.1371544.

Vlek, P., A. Khamzina, H. Azadi, A. Bhaduri, L. Bharati, A. Braimoh, C. Martius, T. Sunderland & F. Taheri. 2017. Trade-offs in multi-purpose land use under land degradation. Sustainability, 9, 2196.


Avelino, A.F.T., Baylis, K., J. Honey-Rosés (2016) Goldilocks and the Raster Grid: Selecting Scale when Evaluating Forest Conservation Policies. PLoS ONE 11(12): e0167945. doi:10.1371/journal. pone.0167945.

Barreau, A., J.T. Ibarra, F.S. Wyndham, A. Rojas and R.A. Kozak (2016).  How Can We Teach Our Children if We Cannot Access the Forest?  Generational Change in Mapuche Knowledge of Wild Edible Plants in Andean Temperate Ecosystems of Chile.  Journal of Ethnobiology 36(2):412-432.

Baylis K, J. Honey-Rosés, J Börner, E Corbera, D Ezzine de Blas, P Ferraro, S. Wunder, R. Lapeyre, M. Persson, A Pfaff 2016. Mainstreaming Impact Evaluation in Nature Conservation Conservation Letters 9(1) 68-54. doi: 10.1111/conl.12180

Beaudoin, J.M, Bouthillier, L., Bulkan, J. Nelson, H. and Wyatt, S. (2016). What does “First Nation deep roots in the forests” mean? Identification of principles and objectives for promoting forest-based development. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 46: 1-12

Börner, J., K. Baylis, E. Corbera, D. Ezzine-de-Blas, P.J. Ferraro, J. Honey-Rosés, M. Persson, S. Wunder, S. 2016. Emerging Evidence on Tropical Forest Conservation. PLoS ONE 11(11): e0159152. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0159152

Bulkan, J. (2016). UNDRIP endorsed by Federal Canada: Consequences for the BC Forest Sector. BC Forest Professional

Bulkan, J. (2016). Bai Shan Lin: the Chinese logger with multiple interests in Guyana. ChinaDialogue

Bulkan, J and Palmer, J (2016). Rentier nation: landlordism, patronage and power in Guyana’s gold mining sector. Journal of Extractive Industries and Society, 3, 676–689. Journal of Extractive Industries and Society

Gaston, C. and F. Robichaud.  2016. Overview of Wood Product Markets, Distribution and Market Research in North America: Implications for Value Chain Optimization. Chapter 7 in Sophie D’Amours, et al., Forest Value Chain Optimization and Sustainability, CRC Press (- 344 Pages – ISBN 9781498704861).

Jaung, W., L. Putzel, G.Q.Bull, R. Kozak, C. Elliot (2016). Forest Stewardship Council certification for forest ecosystem services: An analysis of key stakeholder adaptive capacity. Forest Policy and Economics 70:91-98. DOI: 10.1016/j.forpol.2016.06.004

Jaung, W., L. Putzel, G.Q. Bull, R. Kozak (2016). Certification of forest watershed services: A Q methodology analysis of opportunities and challenges in Lombok, Indonesia. Ecosystem Services 22:51-59.

Kearney S.P., Smukler S.M. (2016) Determining Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Removals Associated with Land-Use and Land-Cover Change. In: Rosenstock T., Rufino M., Butterbach-Bahl K., Wollenberg L., Richards M. (eds) Methods for Measuring Greenhouse Gas Balances and Evaluating Mitigation Options in Smallholder Agriculture. Springer, Cham

Shigaeva, Jyldyz, Shannon Hagerman, Hisham Zerriffi, et al. (2016). Decentralizing governance of agropastoral systems: The development and practice of “local governance” during the transitional phase of pasture reforms in Kyrgyzstan Mountain Research and Development 36 (1), 91-101

Stephen J.D., W. E. Mabee, A. Pribowo, S. Pledger, R. Hart, S. Tallio, and G. Q. Bull (2016). Biomass for residential and commercial heating in a remote Canadian aboriginal community. Renewable Energy 86:563-575 DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2015.08.048

Sutherland IJ, Gergel SE and EM Bennett (2016). Seeing the forest for its multiple ecosystem services: indicators for cultural services in heterogeneous forests Ecological Indicators 17:123-133

Timko, J. and R.A. Kozak. 2016. The influences of an improved firewood cookstove, Chitetzo mbaula, on tree species preference in Malawi. Energy for Sustainable Development 33: 53-60.

Tomscha, S.A. and S.E. Gergel (2016). Ecosystem service trade-offs and synergies misunderstood without landscape history Ecology & Society 21(1):43

Pagiola S., J. Honey-Rosés, J. Freire-Gonazález. 2016 PLoS ONE. Evaluation of the Long-Term Sustainability of Land Use Change Induced by Payments for Environmental Services in Quindío, Colombia. PLoS ONE 11(3): e0147829. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0147829

Wilson, S.J. and J.M. Rhemtulla (2016). Acceleration and novelty: community restoration speeds recovery and transforms species composition in young Andean cloud forest Ecological Applications 26(1): 203-218

Wood, S., J.M. Rhemtulla, and O.C. Coomes (2016). Intensification of tropical fallow-based agriculture: trading ecosystem services for economic gain in shifting cultivation landscapes Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment.


Arias-Bustamente, J.R. and Innes, J.L. (2015). Adapting forests management to climate change: experiences of the Nisga’a people. Journal of Environmental Management.

Chang, Wei-Yew and Chris Gaston.  2015.  A trade-flow analysis of the global softwood log market: implications of Russian timber export tax reduction and New Zealand’s timber production restriction.  Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research, 89 (20–35) doi:10.1093/forestry/cpv038

Costedoat, S, E. Corbera, D. Ezzine-de-Blas, K. Baylis, J. Honey-Rosés, M.A. Castillo-Santiago 2015. How effective are biodiversity payments in Mexico? PLoS ONE 10(3): e0119881 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0119881

OE Freeman, H Zerriffi (2015). Complexities and challenges in the emerging cookstove carbon market in India Energy for Sustainable Development 24, 33-43

Gamu, J., Le Billon P. and Spiegel, S.J. 2015 ‘Extractive Industries and Poverty: A Review of Recent Findings and Linkage Mechanisms’ Extractive Industries and Society 2(1), 162-176

Hedge, R., G.Q. Bull, R.A. Kozak and S. Wunder (2015).  Household Participation in a Payments for Environmental Services Program: the Nhambita Forest Carbon Project (Mozambique).  Environment and Development Economics 20(05):611-629.

Liu, J. and Innes, J.L. (2015). Participatory forest management in China: Key challenges and ways forward. International Forestry Review 17(2), 477-484.

Piltan, Mehdi, Taraneh Sowlati, David Cohen, Chris Gaston, and Robert Kozak.  2015.  Analysis of the drivers and factors influencing the performance of partnerships in British Columbia’s forest products supply chain.  The Journal of Science and Technology for Forest Products and Processes, J-FOR-Special-15-06.

Mitchell, M.G.E., E. Bennett, A. Gonzalez, M.J. Lechowicz, J.M. Rhemtulla, et al (2015). The Monteregie connection: Linking landscapes, biodiversity, and ecosystem services, to improve decision-making. Ecology and Society 20(4):15

Petty, A.M., C. Isendahl, H. Brenkert-Smith, D.J. Goldstein, J.M. Rhemtulla, et al. (2015). Maintenance and change in social-ecological systems: applying historical ecology to the study of resource management institutions Global Environmental Change 31:1-10

Riehl, B, H Zerriffi, R Naidoo (2015). Effects of community-based natural resource management on household welfare in Namibia PloS one 10 (5), e0125531

Renard, D, JM Rhemtulla, E Bennett (2015). Bundlng multiple ecosystem services: Insights from a spatio-temporal perspective. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112(43): 13411-13416

Thiel, B., SM Smukler, M Krzic, S Gergel, C Terpsma (2015). Using hedgerow biodiversity to enhance the carbon storage of farmland in the Fraser River delta of British Columbia. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 70 (4), 247-25

Timko, J.A., Green D.S., Sharples, R., and A. Grinde. 2015. Using a community-driven approach to identify local forest and climate change priorities in Teslin, Yukon. Cogent Social Sciences 1(1).

Wang, W., Innes, J.L and Liu, J. (2015). An analysis of farmers’ net incomes from underplanted forest products – case studies from Hunan and Guangxi Provinces of China. International Forestry Review.


Bull. G.Q., C. Elliot, A. Boedhihartono and J. Sayer. (2014). Failures in tropical forest and conservation policy: What’s the solution? Journal of Tropical Forest Science 26(1):1-4

Bull G. Q., S. Pledger, et al. (2014). Culturally driven forest management, utilization and values: A Nuxalk First Nations case study. Forestry Chronicle 90 (5): 51-58.

Chang, Wei-Yew and Chris Gaston.  2014.  The competitiveness of Canadian softwood lumber: A disaggregated trade flow analysis.  Canadian Journal of Forest Research.  44(12): 1494-1506

Gaston, C.  2014.  Visual Wood Product Trends in North American Non-Residential Buildings.  Forest Products Journal.  64(3/4):107-115.

Gong Y., R. Hegde and G.Q. Bull (2014). Payments for ecosystem services: lessons from developing countries. Earthscan/Routledge. Abingdon, UK. Chapter 16. In: S. Kant and J. Alavalapati ed. Handbook in Forest Economics.

Hegde R., G.Q.Bull, R. Kozak, S.Wunder. (2014). Household participation in a payments-for- environmental services program: A carbon sequestration project in Mozambique. Environment and Development Sept. 2014:1-19. DOI:10.1017/S1355770X14000631

Higgs, E., D.A. Falk, A. Guerrini, M. Hall, J. Harris, R.J. Hobbs, S.T. Jackson, J.M. Rhemtulla, and W. Throop. 2014. The changing role of history in restoration ecology. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 12(9): 499-506.

Freeman, O.E. and H. Zerriffi (2014). How you count carbon matters: implications of differing cookstove carbon credit methodologies for climate and development cobenefits Environmental science & technology 48 (24), 14112-14120

Le Billon, P. 2014 ‘Natural resources and corruption in post-war transitions: Matters of trust’ Third World Quarterly 35, 770-786

Pérez Niño, H. and Le Billon, P. 2014 ‘Foreign Aid, Resource Rents, and State Fragility in Mozambique and Angola’ Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 656(1), 79-96

Sommerville, M., Essex, J. and Le Billon, P. 2014 ‘The ‘Global Food Crisis’ and the Geopolitics of Food Security’ Geopolitics 19(2), 239-265

Timko, J.A., Amsalu, A., Acheampong, E., and M. Kinfu. 2014. Local perceptions about the effects of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) and Castor (Ricinus communis) plantations on households in Ghana and Ethiopia. Sustainability 6: 7224-7241.

Timko, J.A. and R.K. Kozak. 2014. Using a gender perspective to explore forest dependence in HIV/AIDS-affected Malawian households. Population & Environment 35(4): 441-454.


Alemagi, D., R. Hajjar, Z. Tchoundjeu and R.A. Kozak (2013).  Cameroon’s Environmental Impact Assessment Decree and Public Participation in Concession-Based Forestry: A Case Study of Eight Forest-Dependent Communities.  Journal of Sustainable Development 6(10):8-24.

Harvey, C. A., M. Chac, C. I. Donatti, E. Garen, L. Hannah, A. Andrade, L. Bede, D. Brown, A. Calle, J. Char, C. Clement, E. Gray, M. H. Hoang, P. Minang, A. Mar, S. Shames, S.

Smukler, E. Somarriba, E. Torquebiau, and J. Van Etten. (2013). Climate-smart landscapes: opportunities and challenges for integrating adaptation and mitigation in tropical agriculture. Conservation Letters 7:77–90.

Innes, JL (2013). What will we use the forests for? Journal of Tropical Forest Science 25 (2), 151-153.

Le Billon, P. (2013). Wars of Plunder: Conflicts, Profits and the Politics of Resources. London, New York: Hurst and Oxford University Press.

Remans, R., and Smukler, S. M., (2013). Linking Biodiversity and Nutrition: Research Methodologies. In Fanzo, J., Hunter, D., Borelli, T.  Mattei, F. editors. Diversifying Food and Diets Using Agricultural Biodiversity to Improve Nutrition and Health. Routledge.

Roy, E.D., A.T. Morzillo, F. Seijo, S.M. Walsh, J.M. Rhemtulla, et al. 2013. The elusive pursuit of interdisciplinarity at the human-environment interface. BioScience 63(9):745-753.

Timko, J.A. 2013. Exploring forest-related coping strategies and innovations for alleviating the HIV/AIDS burden on rural Malawian households. International Forestry Review 15(2): 230-240.

Tomaselli, M.F., J.A. Timko and R.A. Kozak (2013).  Assessing Small and Medium Forest Enterprises’ Access to Microfinance:  Case Studies from The Gambia.  Journal of Development Studies 49(3):334-347.

Waeber, P.O., Nitschke, C.R., Le Ferrec, A., Harshaw, H., Innes, J.L. (2013). Evaluating alternative forest management strategies for the Champagne and Aishihik Traditional Territory, southwest Yukon. Elsevier Journal of Environmental Management 120 (2013): 148-156


Alemagi, D., R. Hajjar, S. David and R.A. Kozak (2012).  Benefits and Barriers to Certification of Community-Based Forest Operations in Cameroon:  An Exploratory Assessment.  Small-Scale Forestry 11(4):417-433.

Baird, I. and Le Billon, P. 2012 ‘Landscapes of political memories: War legacies and land negotiations in Laos’ Political Geography 31(5), 290-300

Elder, S., Zerriffi, H. and Le Billon, P. 2012 ‘Effects of Fair Trade certification on social capital: he case of Rwandan coffee producers’ World Development 40(11), 2355-2367 (15%)

Ganguly, Indroneil, Ivan Eastin and Chris Gaston.  2012.  Global Hardwood Trends and Impacts: a focus on India.  Prepared for Forestry Innovation Investment, December.  100 pp.

Hajjar, R., R.A. Kozak and J.L. Innes (2012).  Is Decentralization Leading to “Real” Decision-Making Power for Forest-Dependent Communities?  Case Studies from Mexico and Brazil.  Ecology and Society 17(1), Article No. 12.

Jackson, L. E., M. M. Pulleman, L. Brussaard, K. S. Bawa, G. G. Brown, I. M. Cardoso, P. C. de Ruiter, L. García-Barrios, A. D. Hollander, P. Lavelle, E. Ouédraogo, U. Pascual, S. Setty, S. M. Smukler, T. Tscharntke, and M. Van Noordwijk. (2012). Social-ecological and regional adaptation of agrobiodiversity management across a global set of research regions. Global Environmental Change 22:623–639.

Le Billon, P. 2012 ‘Digging Into ‘Resource War’ Beliefs’ Human Geography 5(2), 26-40

Tomaselli, M.F., J. Timko, and R. Kozak. 2012. The role of government in the development of small and medium forest enterprises: case studies from The Gambia. Small-scale Forestry 11: 237–253. 

Ramankutty, N., J.M. Rhemtulla. 2012. Can intensive farming save nature? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 10: 455–455.

Smukler, S.M., S. Philpott, L.E. Jackson, A. Klein, F.A.J. DeClerck, L. Winowiecki, and C.A. Palm (2012). Ecosystem Services in Agricultural Landscapes. In F. DeClerck, J. Ingram, and C. Rumbaitis del Rio, editors. Integrating Ecology into Poverty Alleviation and International Development Efforts: a practical guide. Springer, New York.